Its thought the oldest known temple in Göbekli Tepe, in Turkey, may have been dedicated to the Dog Star (Sirius). The site is 11,000 years old and consists of 20 enclosures though only a few have yet been excavated. Each enclosure is circular and surrounded by stone pillars on which are carved animals.
If the pillars were arranged as an astronomical observatory like Stonehenge may have been then by simulating the position of the stars at the time the temple was being used then Sirius may have been the object of worship. It is one of the brightest stars in the sky and would have started appearing on the horizon after 9300 BCE. Archaeoastronomer Giulio Magli believes the appearance of this new bright star may have sparked a new religion which the temple was built to serve.
The site in southern Turkey is also fascinating for how it goes against the idea of agriculture sparking human settlements and civilisation. There is no evidence of contemporary agriculture meaning the temple could have come first.